高中大学论文essay作业代写: Indoor air quality standard

Indoor air quality standard

Literature review

Late and early 1980s, people gradually realized that the doors and windows that wee closed improperly takencan lead to the release of toxic and hazardous substances, such as carpet, vinyl wall and ground floor release of toxic substances, workshops and cabinets in formaldehyde. Thus architects both study and implement energy-saving measures and protection of indoor air quality, including adequate ventilation in buildings. For example, people use lots of natural light and chemically treated materials to abandon use of natural materials.

At this time, there are some European and American countries where people have applied ecology architects to design a lot of thought called “eco-building” homes. The design is based on the general idea: use the casing, greenhouse and natural ventilation technology to provide a stable, comfortable indoor climate.Also, they have used windmill and solar installations to provide basic energy building; Feces, food waste and other garbage are used as biogas fuel and fertilizer. Greenhouse cultivation flowers, vegetables and other plants are used to provide oxygen-rich environment, tocollect rainwater for domestic water and to treat sewage for fish and plant irrigation. Thus, in this type of building, it has included turf roof, casing insulation, greenhouse and vegetation, hot body, windmills and solar energy devices. For example, in the United States, Minnesota Euler Naples is a typical residential building in this case. Zheng, M., Cass, G. R., Schauer, J. J., & Edgerton, E. S. (2002).

In 1992, green residential building (green home) had caught fame. United Nations of the United States, “Austin Green Building Program” had been awarded with “model environmental action” title. The program is guided by the Austin. Texas is an architectural research and design center, funded by the city government. The United States (and perhaps international)is related to sustainability which was first established by an urban building plan. The successful implementation of the plan also inspired other states in America and the US Department of Energy’s have also invested in similar projects. More rapid growth of cities and other high environmental consciousness such as Portland, Denver and Seattle, have already launched a green residential building program. These plans require operators to learn to save energy, water and how to use alternative materials. Many plans also send experts to the relevant earth-friendly buildings in order todesign and construct buildings to reflect the market value of the environment, for example, if they do not use the original forest wood, they can get 2 points, with 15 grading catchment systems available. Ole Fanger, P. (2006).

On October 26th , in 1998, 28 meetings of the “Challenge 98 green buildings” (Green Building Challenge’98) conference ws held in the western city of Vancouver, Canada Downtown Hyatt Regency Hotel. Finland, Canada, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the United States, Denmark, France, Norway, Austria, Sweden, Switzerland, Japan, Germany, Poland and other 14 countries sent 17 research groups, participation in meetings of academic exchanges. Besides, they have introduced their green building, their practice and experience. Green building assessment tool and its application, and theoretical principles of green building design and support tools and processes have been presented.Also, there are feedbacks about green architecture, green building, indoor physical environment, urban problems, assess green city, examples and other relevant national green building. “Green Building Challenge” is a partnership program is composed by the 14 countries, at the aim of developing and testing the behavior of new system building environment. Natural Resources Canada as the secretariat unit of the program, the international framework of the Committee is composed of representatives from the various countries to coordinate the technical process. Ole Fanger, P. (2006).

Research Methodology

Collection of Data

Currently indoor pollution degree is actually 2 to 5 times higher than that of outdoor, and it has become a hot topic. The outdoor air PM2.5 is harmful to people but it is far less serious in a variety of toxic substances. More than 70 percent of home decoration have contaminationand 92.3 percent of home decoration pollution lack of proper handling. In fact, many consumers in the indoor air contamination began to carry out appropriate remedial measures. Reduce indoor air pollution is the most effective strategy to control the source.

However, the source of indoor air pollution control is not reliable. now if you want to get rid of the “raw material – processing – finished – Circulation,” or handle the whole industry chain quality of effective monitoring, there are difficulties. “In other countries, like developed countries, the United Kingdom, air particulate matter is about of 10 to 20 micrograms per cubic meter. In fact, the degree is already feeling high. But we are here, a hundred concentration level is not surprising, especially in indoor air pollution. Domestic concern is too low. ”According to tge Economic development, to a certain extent, the way of controling indoor air pollution, sooner or later will be put on the agenda.” Persily, A. K. (1997).

Methods / procedures

Features Green Buildings

First green building can make energy and resource consumption to theminimum. Also, it is able to make use of solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and other natural energy sources and renewable energy. The use of energy-saving technologies and pollution prevention, green buildings and existing buildings, compared to energy consumption has reduced by 70% -75%, or even higher. Brook, J. R., Dann, T. F., & Burnett, R. T. (1997).

Second, green building has regional characteristics, which emphasized the use of local raw materials, and it respects the local culture, natural and climatic conditions. The style is completely localized, and so the new architectural aesthetics and healthy and comfortable living environment are accepted. Selection commercialization of general building production technology, standardization, industrialization of the construction process will result in similar architectural style of the north and south.

Third, green building surroundings have clean air, water and soil, so it can avoid adverse harm the natural environment. Besides, these buildingsare less vulnerable to natural disasters because its design keeps green spaces, planting trees around the building, in order to improve the landscape, to maintain ecological balance, and get wind, shading and other effects. Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Ruiz, C. R., Artiñano, B., Hansson, H. C., Harrison, R. M., … & Schneider, J. (2004)

Fourth, there are healthy and comfortable green building structural arrangement, orientation, shape, interior space and reasonable layout, good natural lighting system and sufficient natural ventilation and pleasant surroundings. Its internal and external communication has taken effective measures that can be automatically adjusted to climate change.

Green building principles of sustainable development, which reflects the balance of green philosophy, through scientific overall design, integrated green configuration, natural ventilation, natural lighting, low power envelope, new energy, green building materials and intelligent control and other high-tech, green buildings can be of great benefits. We must fully demonstrate the harmony of humanity and construction, environment and science and technology, which not only meet the physical and psychological needs of people, but also creates least energy and resource consumption. It has the most economical, the minimum impact on the environment. For the newly renovated house must be a professional air testing by professional bodies, if you fail the test, results must be professional treatment. In life, we should always value ventilation; also, we can choose some simple air purification scheme. In fact, in terms of product standards, international various countries have promulgated the “interior decoration materials harmful substances limited standards”, “indoor air quality standards” and a series of standards and regulations as well as the provisions of the plywood and their products. Some materials such as the interior paint, adhesive, limit values of harmful substances released by wood furniture, wallpaper, PVC sheet flooring, carpets and other decoration materials and furniture are mentioned. However, the specific segments to industry standards for indoor emissions have not been fully developed. For example, the domestic paint industry is still not specific according to the VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) emission standards. The law is enacted in 2001, but in 2009 the law enforcement has revised interior decoration materials on wood standard VOC solvent-based paints and interior and exterior paint. Nowadays, there is a certain gap between European and American standards. The entire furniture industry barriers to entry are low, the product quality is uneven.

The US market in the field of indoor air quality has been gradually formed a relatively complete system. From a strictly market access to third-party manufacturers , they have sought certification testing to establish a market advantage and then now they focus on consumers in the purchase of the product certification mark, the whole industry chain is maturer.

In the set of relatively complete system, it is essential that a more complete and highly credible third-party testing and certification can be carried out. Most mainstream is a specialized indoor air quality standard of the US company-owned UL – “Green Guard” (UL-GREENGUARD) standard. From a comprehensive perspective, this standard has covered 25 related industries, including building materials detection range furniture, electronics and appliances, and much possible release of toxic substances. Manufacturers will find their own products. “Application” and “Green Guard” are certified, through a series of rigorous testing, standard products can labeled “green guardian” sign. For consumers, a series of in-depth understanding of the testing process and principle is not easy, but looking for a credible detection flag is more simple and practical.

Indeed, with the strengthening of awareness of environmental protection, while purchasing of furniture and other products, people are more inclined to choose products with the green flag to make their own peace of mind. Such awareness would have been a good thing, but our furniture is not mandatory certification requirements, has not yet enacted domestic furniture green certification standards. Certification represents now cohabitation domestic market, green flag variation. Coupled with general environmental awareness, consumers have misunderstanding in the home environment. For example, some businesses use the concept of environmental protection fish in troubled waters, or even printed themselves on the green flag.The product bought by customers simply cannot be guaranteed. Turpin, B. J., & Lim, H. J. (2001).

Conclusion

Air pollution is a major environmental risk to health. By reducing air pollution levels, we can help countries to reduce the global burden of infection of the respiratory system, heart and lung diseases. The lower the level of urban air pollution, the better people’s respiratory system (short and long) and cardiovascular health will be. Indoor air pollution is estimated to cause about 200 million people’s death, which occurs mostly in developing countries. About half of children under five years of age have died due to pneumonia . Outdoor air pollution causes an estimated 1.3 million deaths in the world each year. Most exposure to air pollutants caused the problem globally.and Whether indoor or outdoor air pollution, it affects people in both developed and developing countries. 2005 “World Health Organization air quality guidelines” is designed to provide global guidance on reducing the impact of air pollution on health. The first edition in 1987 and 1997 have been carried out in Europe. The new guidelines (2005) are applied to the current global and expert evaluation on the basis of scientific evidence. Concentration limits are selected by the following proposed amendments to air pollutants: particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), applicable across all WHO regions. Yao, X., Chan, C. K., Fang, M., Cadle, S., Chan, T., Mulawa, P., … & Ye, B. (2002).

Reference

Brook, J. R., Dann, T. F., & Burnett, R. T. (1997). The Relationship Among TSP, PM10, PM2. 5, and Inorganic Constituents of Atmospheric Participate Matter at Multiple Canadian Locations. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 47(1), 2-19.

Chuck, W. F., & Kim, J. T. (2011). Building environmental assessment schemes for rating of IAQ in sustainable buildings. Indoor and Built Environment, 20(1), 5-15.

Emmerich, S. J. (2001). Validation of multizone IAQ modeling of residential-scale buildings: A review. TRANSACTIONS-AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING REFRIGERATING AND AIR CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, 107(2), 619-628.

Ole Fanger, P. (2006). What is IAQ?. Indoor Air, 16(5), 328-334.

Persily, A. K. (1997). Evaluating building IAQ and ventilation with indoor carbon dioxide. TRANSACTIONS-AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING REFRIGERATING AND AIR CONDITIONING ENGINEERS, 103, 193-204.

Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Ruiz, C. R., Artiñano, B., Hansson, H. C., Harrison, R. M., … & Schneider, J. (2004). Speciation and origin of PM10 and PM2. 5 in selected European cities. Atmospheric Environment, 38(38), 6547-6555.

Turpin, B. J., & Lim, H. J. (2001). Species contributions to PM2. 5 mass concentrations: Revisiting common assumptions for estimating organic mass.Aerosol Science & Technology, 35(1), 602-610.

Wang, S., & Xu, X. (2004). Optimal and robust control of outdoor ventilation airflow rate for improving energy efficiency and IAQ. Building and Environment,39(7), 763-773.

Yao, X., Chan, C. K., Fang, M., Cadle, S., Chan, T., Mulawa, P., … & Ye, B. (2002). The water-soluble ionic composition of PM2. 5 in Shanghai and Beijing, China. Atmospheric Environment, 36(26), 4223-4234.

Zheng, M., Cass, G. R., Schauer, J. J., & Edgerton, E. S. (2002). Source apportionment of PM2. 5 in the southeastern United States using solvent-extractable organic compounds as tracers. Environmental Science & Technology, 36(11), 2361-2371.