论文essay代写 作业代写例子 Performance Anxiety
Most music performers such as the piano players, bass players and even the least important dancer who dances in the corner will understand the issue of stress and stage fright before the real performance. No matter how many times that they have practiced, as long as they choose to stand on a stage surrounded by other people, they will be afraid and some of them who have a more serious symptom will probably tremble or even faint out.
In fact, those who have to perform to make a living need to know how to manage well the stress and tension because that decides if they can excel well in their career. Also, this period of coping one’s stress will have to last for some phases of his or her music career.
In the article, the performance anxiety that the musical performers need to face will be mentioned. In this part, the common problem of all people who want to perform will be mentioned. Also, the performance anxiety can be presented in different forms, such as feeling dizzy, feeling sick, vomiting, having a cramp, having a headache, sweating or even fainting. Therefore, it is worthwhile to mention the ways that professionals recommended to the music performers or any other performers who will do shows on the stage how to manage them. (Lehrer, P. M.,& Woolfolk, R. L,1984)
In fact, according to Paul M. Lehrer who did his studies in the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey in the thesis A Review of The Approaches to the Management of Tension and Stage Fright in Music Performance, it is mentioned that the way to manage stress and stage fright and all other symptoms on the stage requires us to grasp and understand many different skills. (Lehrer, P. M., Rosen, R. C., Kostis, J. B, & Greenfield, 1987)
Some of these skills are unlike what people have learnt in the classes or in self help books. The reason is because they are somehow related to some instrumental technique. As a result, in the article, certain ways of handling the performance anxiety will be presented. In the end, it will generally discuss the phenomenon of getting anxious before people are going to perform on stage. (Lehrer, P. M., Rosen, R. C., Kostis, J. B, & Greenfield, 1987)
In fact, the stage fright can be presented in more than one form. Before the ways of managing stage fright and anxiety are presented, it is necessary to look at this problem more objectively and to discuss the root or the basic general ideas of stage fright. The term stage fright or performance anxiety commonly happened to those who rarely perform on stage as well as those whose job requires them to constantly do the performances on stage.
According to the research done by the magazine New Yorker, it has been proved that the reason why people, experienced or not, will have to go through anxiety, is because they have fear of making mistakes on the stage and they are also afraid that they cannot properly handle their body language as well as their moves. A lot of people easily feel embarrassed because they do not know how to move their bodies and they are afraid that they have smiled too much on the stage. In fact, some of the hottest searched phrases on youtube are “Most embarrassing moment for politicians” or “most embarrassing moment for singers or actors or actresses” as well as “the top ten most embarrassing failed lip syn”. (Lehrer, P. M., Rosen, R. C., Kostis, J. B, & Greenfield, 1987) It is obvious that people as the audiences have found joy in watching people failing while this is why most people have all kinds of illness before they perform on stage. For example, in some videos about the most embarrassing moments for singers and hosts, it can be seen that the singers have dropped the mic on the floor while they were singing so that the whole show went silent. In some cases, the hosts have failed to dress their shirt well, so when they were arguing on the TV, another host was too exciting that he by accident had dragged the female host’s shirt down and all of a sudden, because the female host did not wear bra, the audiences from the whole world and see her naked body and their breast. (Lehrer, P. M.,& Woolfolk, R. L,1984)
This is probably the most extreme case for those who need to performance no matter on stage or on TV or even on radio. Except for those who have the extreme cases, like the cases that we can see on TV, most ordinary hosts or performers have made similar but less serious mistakes. For example, even for Obama, one time when he was trying to promote his presidential election campaign on the stage, he ran into embarrassing situation. Among his audiences, there is one person who was against his campaign. Therefore, during his speech, that person kept yelling and calling President Obama bad names. At that moment, Obama was quite embarrassed and he could not even show a natural smile on the stage. In the end, although he dealt with the problem with a sense of humor, he could not cover his embarrassment while that event had happened during this speech.
The focus of the article is not about all performers’ performance anxiety but mostly about the stage fright of those people who need to perform on the stage in musical field. As the previous paragraph has stated, on the internet, there are also too many video clips about the embarrassing moments for the singers or players of musical instruments. (Lehrer, P. M., Rosen, R. C., Kostis, J. B, & Greenfield, 1987) In these videos, some singers might have accidentally hit the wrong note and the audiences were too eager to capture this moment. The next day, on all tabloids, there would be a lot of articles with the big title showing the picture of that singer who had made a mistake by accident, saying that “Blah Blah Blah singer could not even hit the easiest note”. In other cases, when the dancers were dancing on the stage, he or she could not find the balance. As a result, that dancer might have fallen on another dancer or he himself has fallen on stage. All of these cases are possible. (Lehrer, S, 1983)
However, it is not because making a mistake is very shameful. However, it is because the audiences and the public were trying to make fun of these people who devote their lives in the field of performances. However, the root of the reason why these people who do musical performances is because they do not want to be embarrassed or to make a mistake.
In fact, according to the research that was done by the organization called the International Conference of Symphony and Opera Musicians, which was also called the ICSOM, it have been proved by the experts that more than one fifths of those professional musical performers have suffered from stage fright or performance anxiety before they go to perform on the stage. In addition, among this group of one fifths of the professional or non professional musical performers, around more than fifteen percent of the performers have suffered from this problem seriously as well. Also, there is another research which is done by an expert called Liden. But unlike the previous research which was done to a large group of people in a big city, this research is done among a smaller group of interviewees. (Lehrer, P. M.,& Woolfolk, R. L,1984)
Actually, he has discovered from this research that the problem of performance fright or the stage fright is very common among all musical performers, including the most well known pop singers like Lady Gaga, or the most talented pianist or violinists, let alone those beginners of musical performances. In the trailers or video clips of the concerts that were held by famous singers, people can see that behind the stage before they performed, they have said to their team members about how nervous they were at that moment. So even the most professional singer and other musical performers will suffer from anxiety and stage fright before they perform.
To sum up, the reason why the performers in the musical field will suffer from this problem is because they are fear of making mistakes or making a fool of themselves on the stage. Besides, what has made this problem more serious is that the other audiences always make fun of these people and always record the failed moment of music performers. As a result, performers working in musical field constantly suffer from stage fright and performance anxiety. (Lehrer, P. M.,& Woolfolk, R. L,1984)
It is a heatedly debated topic about whether the musical performers’ performance anxiety is positive or negative to their career development and their performances. In fact, experts mentioned that ordinary degree of stage fright can be seen as normal.( Lehrer, S, 1983)
However, if the musical performers cannot control well the degree of their performance anxiety as well their feelings of stress, it might go badly. Once the musical performers failed to handle the problem, it can turn into excessive degree of fright. In the end, it will result in worsening the quality of their performances or it could lead to them making worse mistakes.
Music performers need to face another issue called the improvisation, which means that they have to perform whatever they are required to do. However, they are not given any time to prepare before they went up on the stage. As a result, they need to gather from everything they learnt during their career of performance and make use of their mild degree of anxiety to make sure they perform well and think of creative ways of performing.
However, other evidence had shown that a mild degree of stage fright can have a good result in the person’s musical performances too. However, this situation is only limited to the case while the anxiety is only “mild”. For example, the problem of stage fright can be presented in many different ways.
The performers might have dry mouth or a trembling mouth that prevents them from pronouncing the lyrics clearly. Besides, the performer might have an upset stomach before they perform so they constantly worry about if they will need to go to the restroom. On the contrary, it has been proved by Paul M. Lehrer who did his studies in the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey in the thesis A Review of The Approaches to the Management of Tension and Stage Fright in Music Performance that if the symptom is mild and within control, the pounding heart and the upset stomach can end up helping the performers as well. For example, the chemicals in the performers’ body which caused their feelings of uncomfortable can be the same elements that help them to forget their world and their name so that they can be fully devoted to their world.
In another case, when a person who is going to play piano on the stage is completely without any stage fright and that person is feeling like going back home or chatting and singing to his best friends, it is likely that the person cannot perform well on the stage. It is undeniable that if a person is totally relaxed before he or she performs on stage, it is likely that he cannot devote his best in the show and he or she can end up ruining the show.
In conclusion, it is normal for people to have stage fright or performance anxiety before they perform because the chemicals in their body that made them feel dizzy or have a headache can be the exact same ones that helped them ace and perform better. As a result, it is not correct to assume that performance anxiety is completely bad or terrible.
The previous paragraphs have presented readers with the reasons of the musical performers’ stage fright. In addition, specific examples of what makes the performers have worse problems have been discussed as well. Besides, it is mentioned the excessive degree of stage fright can lead to the worst case in their performance but a mild degree of performance anxiety can help the performers focus better in their shows and try their best, which will lead to a positive result. (Lome, W. R., & Irvine, J. K, 1984)
Now it is necessary to discuss the different forms of performance anxiety and what skills or knowledge that the performers need to master in order to handle their performance anxiety. In fact, according to Paul M. Lehrer who did his studies in the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey in the thesis A Review of The Approaches to the Management of Tension and Stage Fright in Music Performance, performance anxiety is more than only about feeling nervous or afraid on the stage about making mistakes. In fact, the reason of the person’s anxiety problem can go back to their inner physiological problems and their basic human instinct. (Paul M. Lehrer, 1995)
According to the studies of Paul M. Lehrer, some musical performers who suffer from performance anxiety can find their problems rooted back to a symptom which is called the fight and flight reflex. In fact, the so called the fight and flight reflex is similar to human beings’ most basic instinct to fight back when they are stuck in danger. For example, if a person is equipped with the fight and flight reflex, his or her body is able to endure the hardship or the body can identify the problems that they might need to face, as a result, if a person can deal with the fight and flight reflex well, he could make a living in the most dangerous place such as the forest or the desert. (Lehrer, P. M, 1982)
When a person is about to sing a song and play piano on the stage, he or she starts to feel afraid of making a mistake so that the person is likely to sweat a lot. In fact, the moment when the musical performer is sweating, it is because his fight and flight reflex is functioning. If a person is escaping from a wolf in the forest and he keeps sweating, the experts have proved that his sweating can help him climb a tree faster or to exceed his normal speed. This can also be applied in one’s performance. (Lehrer, S, 1983)
There is a common misunderstanding about people’ reaction to stress. The majority of people have misunderstood that if a person is nervous and feeling that his or her body is built up with a shield of armor, then this person cannot perform his or her best ability. However, the truth is the exact opposite. (Levee, J. R., Cohen, M. J., & Rickles, W. H., 1976)
When a musician is about to sing on the stage and he or she is feeling nervous, it means that the person’s muscle tension has been increased. In this case, a singer with an increased muscle tension will be able to hit a high note because the person’s muscle power and strength has been improved. As a result, he can make use of the muscle power in order to push up more air in his or her vocal chord. (Lome, W. R., & Irvine, J. K, 1984)
What is more, if a dancer is facing the same problem, the dancer’s increased muscle tension can result in him or her getting more strength when they are kicking up their legs high in the air.
This fight and flight reflex instinct can work well on the guitar players as well. When a guitar player is completely relaxed and without stress at all, he is likely to keep his hand gesture too loose and too casual. As a result, when he is strumming the guitar or picking the chords, the guitar player’s hand will not have enough strength to strum the guitar to give it more powerful sound. However, when the same guitar player is experiencing performance anxiety or stage fight, he will focus most of his or her body’s strength on picking or strumming the guitar strings. It is the same for the piano players. Usually, if a person’s hand is totally relaxed because this is person is not at all nervous about the performance. The note that this piano play plays will be too rough and some of them do not sound natural together. However, in another case, if the piano performer is too nervous, he or she will end up hitting the keys too hard. But when the person has a mild degree of feeling nervous, it is likely that he or she can perform well. Therefore, it is obvious that performance anxiety is solely a psychological problem and the basic human beings’ physical response. It is not necessary to think of this issue as very serious or scary. As a result, it is recommended that the best solution to solve this problem is not to think about it and let one’s body function normally. (Lome, W. R., & Irvine, 1984)
In fact, performance anxiety is a common problem that can happen to anyone, even the most experienced host or singer will feel nervous before they put on shows alive. The reason is because these musical performers are afraid of making mistakes and getting embarrassed. However, even though the majority of people thought that performance anxiety is harmful but the truth is that a mild degree of performance anxiety can produce chemicals that help the performers do better in their shows. Besides, this feeling is rooted in human beings’ basic survival instincts so it is not necessary to feel ashamed of having it and making good use of performance anxiety is beneficial in their performances.
Lehrer, P. M.,& Woolfolk, R. L. (1984). Are stress reduction techniques interchangeable or do they have specific effects? A review of the empirical literature. In R. L. Wolfolk & P. M. Lehrer (Eds.) Rinci’pIs and practices of stress management. New brk: GuiLfold.
Lehrer, P. M. (1982). How to relax and how not to relax: A reevaluation of the work of Edrnund Jacobson. Behavior Rsccmh a d T h h 20,417428.
Lehrer, P. M., Rosen, R. C., Kostis, J. B, & Greenfield, D. (1987). Treating stage fight in musicians: The use of beta blockers. Nnu J- Medicine, 84,s-34.
Lehrer, S. (1983). Letter to the editor. &no QLcmlejl31,M.
Levee, J. R., Cohen, M. J., & Rickles, W. H. (1976). Electromyographic bio feedback forrelief of tension in the facial and throat muscles of a woodwind musician. Eiofeedbndr and SelfRegulation, 1,1131 20.
Lome, W. R., & Irvine, J. K, (1984). In vivo EMG biofeedback in violin and violapedagogy. Biof- and &If-Regulution, 9,161-1 68.
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